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Patrick Rainbolt
Jul 13, 2017

2017-07 Urban Farmer Meetup - Next

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Edited: Jul 13, 2017

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  • Patrick Rainbolt
    Jul 12, 2017

    Summer Pest , How to identify and combat these critters and bugs? SLIDE: Pets Breakdown: Aphids Easy-to-grow vegetables can sometimes acquire disease through aphid infestation, which can cause your cucumbers to become mottled and stunted. Aphids are not difficult to control if you spot them early enough, so monitor your cucumber plants for signs of these tiny insects. Aphids are tiny insects with long, slender mouth parts used to pierce stems and leaves of plants to suck out the plant’s fluids. Aphids range in size from 1/16 to 1/8 inch long. These insects can be almost any color, including green, black, brown, red or pink. Aphids have two tubes near the end of the abdomen, and slender antennae that protrude from the head. They can be winged or wingless. Aphids tend to collect along the side of your garden that is most exposed to wind, so check these areas carefully. Also check the undersides of leaves. Indirect evidence of aphids includes the presence of natural enemies such as ladybugs and lacewing flies. Ants feed on the excreted sap generated by aphids, so if you see ants near your cucumber plants it could indicate an aphid infestation. While small populations of aphids will not directly damage your cucumbers, aphids transmit several forms of mosaic virus that can destroy the plants. If mosaic virus is present, your cucumbers will be mottled with yellow or light green spots, the leaves will curl, the vines will weaken, and the plants will be stunted. Cucumbers will also be small, misshapen and develop knobs and warts. They will not be edible. Additionally, transmission does not require a large aphid population, so identifying the disease quickly is key to controlling it. Introduce natural enemies of aphids in your garden. Certain species of wasps, ladybugs and lacewings feed on aphids. Never use more nitrogen fertilizer than necessary; high levels of nitrogen fertilizer promote aphid reproduction. When we were dealing with our Aphid issues on our Tomato plants we used an solution of half water half rubbing alcohol and sprayed it directly on both sides of the leaves. This worked wonders and we have not had another infestation this season. Reference http://homeguides.sfgate.com/aphids-cucumber-plants-25851.html White Cabbage Butterfly Anyone who has ever grown cabbage, broccoli or cauliflower knows the damage cabbage worms and cabbage moths can do! One day your plants are healthy and vibrant, and then suddenly it looks like they have become riddled with holes. Cabbage worms and moths can be controlled and nearly eliminated. With a little effort, there are a few simple ways to help defend your garden against these unwanted creatures. Cabbage worms are the result of the larvae from the cabbage moth. If you see white butterfly like creatures floating around your garden with black spots – you have cabbage moths. And the cabbage moth will lay larvae on the undersides of your and cabbage, broccoli and cauliflower. That larvae then turns into the cabbage worm, a greenish worm with barely visible yellow stripes. They start out by eating holes in the foliage of your vegetable plants. From there, and as they become larger, they can bore directly into the vegetables, completely ruining a crop. Cabbage loopers on the other hand are more of a caterpillar. Unlike cabbage worm, they do not have a middle set of legs, so they move up and down on plants like inch worms to move about. They can cause a lot of damage quickly, and will attack all garden plants. How To Control Cabbage Worms, Moths and Loopers There are several ways to protect your crop naturally. The first key, as with controlling all garden pests and issues, is to walk through your garden on a daily basis to notice and head off attacks before they have become a major problem. With that said, here are some great natural remedies to controlling these destructive pests: Herbs and Flowers Planting repelling herbs in your cabbage and cauliflower rows can be a big help in keeping cabbage pests at bay. Thyme is well-known as a natural repellent to cabbage worms. In addition, Dill and the Mint family of herbs are known repellents as well. Be careful with mint, it can be extremely invasive, so it’s best to have it in pots placed throughout your cabbage, broccoli and cauliflower rows. How do the flowers come into play? Planting a few blooming annuals like marigolds and nasturtiums in rows or throughout your garden helps to repel many harmful insects, like aphids and mosquitoes. But more importantly, it brings in beneficial paper wasps and insects looking for nectar. Those wasps love to lay attacking parasitic eggs on the backs of worms – killing them naturally. Hand Picking Yes, the good old-fashioned hand method of walking rows daily and removing worms / loopers really does work! And if you see those dreaded white moths floating around, take them out as well – that is of course if you can catch them! It only takes a few minutes, but walking rows and removing the pests that are present can keep a small problem from quickly becoming an epidemic. Reference https://oldworldgardenfarms.com/2017/05/18/controlling-cabbage-worms-naturally/ Potato Bugs Both the adult and larval forms chew leaves and can completely defoliate an entire crop if potato beetle control methods are not implemented. Their feeding can greatly reduce yield and in some cases, may even kill plants. Alternate host plants include tomatoes, peppers and eggplant. Beneficial insects, such as ladybugs, spined soldier bugs and lacewing, feed on eggs and the young larval stages. Diatomaceous Earth contains no toxic poisons and works on contact. Dust lightly and evenly over vegetable crops wherever pest insects are found. In early morning, shake adults beetles from plants onto ground cloth and dump captured pests into soapy water. I’ve always found hand picking of adults and larva and the removal of the leaves with eggs to be one of the best methods to controlling this pest. Reference https://www.planetnatural.com/pest-problem-solver/garden-pests/colorado-potato-beetle-control/ Ants Place ant deterring smells around the base of the plant – There are a few things that ants do not seem to like the smell of. Some of these things are mint or cinnamon. Try laying some mint or cinnamon flavored gum around the base of the affected plant. Or just sprinkle some cinnamon around the base of the plant. Plants like geranium, garlic, aster, calendula, chrysanthemum and mint are known to deter ants and other garden pests. Planting these plants around the affected plant will help to keep ants away. Reference https://www.gardeningknowhow.com/plant-problems/pests/insects/keeping-ants-off-flowers.htm Let us know if you have any questions about the material provided.
  • Patrick Rainbolt
    Jul 12, 2017

    Summer Pest , How to identify and combat these critters and bugs? SLIDE: Pets Breakdown: Japanese Beetles Plants to watch: Fruit Trees; Apple and Peach, Roses, Zinnias, Grape Vines Many gardeners and homeowners consider them to be one of the most serious pests they face. They can cause devastating root damage in their grub phase, but also attract various burrowing animals that dig up your lawn or garden bed searching for the grubs to eat. The adult beetles feed on plant foliage and it results in rapid loss of leaves Japanese beetle grubs overwinter 8-10 inches (20-25 cm) deep in the soil. As spring arrives and temperatures increase, the grubs move up in the soil to feed on plant roots. They pupate in late May to June and adults start emerging in late June to mid-July. Adults live from 30 to 45 days and feed through late summer or early fall with females constantly laying eggs. Treat with a combination of Milky Spore and NemaSeek Beneficial Nematodes in either the spring or the fall. The nematodes help to distribute the Milky Spore. This combination of organisms also works synergistically to most effectively control the grubs. In warm climates you will achieve excellent long-term control after applying Milky Spore once per year for 3 years. In colder climates it may take up to 5 years to achieve long term control. Milky Spore is the bacterium Paenibacillus popilliae (formerly Bacillus popillae ). This bacillus is primarily lethal to Japanese Beetle grubs. The life cycle of the Japanese beetle includes the immature beetle, called a grub. The grubs inhabit the soil of your lawn and garden, feeding on the roots of your grass and other vegetation. Once Milky Spore is applied, the grubs ingest it as a normal part of their feeding. The more spores are in the area, the greater the chance of infection. Each infected grub dies within approximately 3 weeks and releases new spores. Nematodes Seek Out Stationary Pests including Grubs, root zone weevils, citrus weevils, Japanese beetles, black vine weevils, ticks, queen ants/termites and more. Great for gardens, lawns, fields, pastures and orchards. After being applied to the soil, the nematodes locate pests and enter through various body openings or directly through the body wall. Once inside, the nematodes produce bacteria that is injected into the pest's blood. They will not harm mammals, aquatic life, birds, reptiles or amphibians Apply quality humus and essential soil additives to improve overall soil health and bioactivity. Grubs don't attack healthy roots. Use a Neem Oil product to control adults that elude your traps and also to discourage them from feeding. Treat again with Beneficial Nematodes six months after your first application to further distribute the Milky Spore and to eliminate newly developing grubs. Some of the most affective things you can do is observe your garden at several times a day if possible. During these times you can physically remove pests and ensure that they will not be returning. Reference http://www.arbico-organics.com/category/japanese-beetles-control Spider Mites Several Types of Mites, Usually named for the host plants: Boxwood Mite, Spruce Mite, Oak Mite, Honey Locust Mite. Spider mites are small and usually red, orange or yellow/green in color. These Pests become troublesome during midsummer dry spells and on plants who are already weakened due to less than favorable growing conditions; transplant stress, less than ideal soil. Mites often go overlooked until they are in abundance and the plants leaves begin to yellow. Easy ways to detect the mites is to shake branches and leaved over a sheet of white paper. The pests will fall and be easily seen on the white background. Mites can be found either on or under the leaves. They slowly remove the chlorophyll, killing the plants. A few options for ridding your garden of these pests include commercial repellents, available at your local nurseries or home goods stores or more natural remedies such as essential oils. Essential oils have a strong scent that work great as natural repellents. They immediately affect the nervous systems of the mites and as a result driving them away. Several to try are: Neem Oil This essential oil is what is referred to as a miticide, and it is extracted from the nuts that come from the neem tree. Neem oil is widely used for a wide variety of pests that attack plants, not just spider mites, therefore it is safe to say that this essential oil is somewhat considered to be a universal natural repellent. Although the smell is not as pleasant or as intense as that of the lemon or eucalyptus oil, the neem oil is great for targeting infestations, and the results will show after the first few days of treatment. Eucalyptus Oil If there is one thing spider mites hate more than the smell of lemon, that is the strong smell of menthol. This is why eucalyptus oil is guaranteed to work like magic, due to its antibacterial and bactericidal properties. In addition to being highly efficient, the eucalyptus oil also has a water-like composition when you slightly dilute it before using it, and this allows an easy, even and effortless distribution across the plant leaves. Lemon Oil Lemon oil is by far one of the most popular choices for preventing spider mites from destroying your plants. Lemons are known for being natural antibiotics, as they have strong antimicrobial properties and they are also non-toxic, which means that they pose no threat whatsoever, neither to your plants nor to you and your family. Besides this, the lemon oil also has a fresh and sharp smell that will delight you! Cinnamon Oil Widely used in the international cuisine, cinnamon is a delicious and intensely flavored ingredient that delights us with its scent and taste. However, the cinnamon oil is a very pleasant smelling essential oil that can be used as a non-toxic and non-hazardous pesticide, and its efficacy against spider mites has been proven numerous times Peppermint Oil Another very strongly scented essential oil is the peppermint oil, which contains an intense menthol smell just like the eucalyptus. In addition to this, the peppermint oil also has antiseptic properties. Rosemary Oil Rosemary oil can be easily sprayed onto the leaves of the infested plant and it will instantly kill the spider mites. Make a solution of water and rosemary oil, put it in a special spraying bottle and then apply it evenly – it will target both the spider mites and all the other species of mites that affect plants. Canola Oil The canola oil is also very efficient if sprayed diligently on every leaf, twice a week. Make sure to mix the canola oil with water and to dilute the oil according to the severity of the infection – if the plant is severely affected by spider mites, then you can create a 2% solution. The concentrations vary slightly from one essential oil to another, as it is highly recommended to use stronger concentrations for oils with a gentle smell, and lower concentrations for those with a very sharp smell (such as eucalyptus, lemon oil, cinnamon oil or the rosemary oil). That being said, make sure to adjust the proportions depending on the size of the spray bottle: if the bottle can accommodate 1 liter of solution, then half fill it with lukewarm water and then add the essential oils. You can either add only one essential oil (10-20 ml) or you can combine two or three of them: for instance, rosemary and peppermint work perfectly together. Another way to prepare the solution is by simply mixing two drops of an essential oil of your choice with 6-8 ounces of warm water and one teaspoon of castile soap (soap made of olive oil). Shake all the ingredients very well, put the solution in a spray bottle as instructed above and then you can start spraying it all over the plant. Both of these “recipes” are equally efficient, but it is highly recommended never to apply pure essential oil directly onto the plants, not even on the affected areas, as they can kill the leaves and do more harm than good. Make sure to always dilute the oil prior to spraying it. Reference https://plantcaretoday.com/get-rid-spider-mites.html Squash Vine Borer Moth The squash vine borer, Melitta curcurbitae , is a common clearwing moth in home gardens throughout the Midwest. It is a serious pest of vine crops, commonly attacking summer squash, winter squash, and pumpkins. Cucumbers and melons are less frequently affected. In home gardens, entire crops may be lost in a year of high borer populations. Identification The adult borer resembles a wasp. It is about 1/2 inch long with an orange abdomen with black dots. The first pair of wings is metallic green while the back pair of wings is clear, although that may be hard to see as the wings are folded behind them when they at rest. Eggs are flat, brown, and about 1/25 inch long. The larvae are white or cream-colored with brown heads, growing to almost an inch in length. Life cycle Beginning in late June or early July, squash vine borer adults emerge from cocoons in the ground. Squash vine borer adults are good fliers for moths and resemble wasps in flight. These moths are unusual because they fly during the day while nearly all other moths fly at night. Soon after emerging, squash vine borers lay eggs singly at the base of susceptible plants. Approximately one week after they are laid, the eggs hatch and the resulting larvae bore into stems to feed. The larvae feed through the center of the stems, blocking the flow of water to the rest of the plant. The larvae feed for four to six weeks, then exit the stems and burrow about one to two inches into the soil to pupate. They remain there until the following summer. There is one generation per year. Damage Often the first symptom of a borer attack is wilting of affected plants. Wilting may occur only in strong sun at first, but if the problem is left unchecked, the plants eventually collapse and die. Closer observation of a wilting plant often reveals holes near the base of the plant filled with moist greenish or orange sawdust-like material called frass . Over time, the base may become mushy or rot away altogether. Several borer larvae may attack a single plant. Management Squash vine borers are challenging to prevent or manage. Use integrated pest management (IPM) methods for the best results. Most management options are limited to control the hatching larvae before they enter the plant. Once the larvae invade the stem, it is difficult to treat squash vine borers. Home gardeners can take a proactive stance against squash vine borers by monitoring your squash for the presence of adult borers starting the last week of June. Monitoring tells you if and when squash vine borers are present. This information helps you determine what further management measures may be necessary. There are two methods for detecting squash vine borer adults. The first is actual observation of adult activity in the garden. These moths are conspicuous insects when flying and easy to detect; watch for them when you're in your garden. In addition, the adults make a very noticeable buzzing sound when flying that is easy to detect while in the garden. You can also use yellow trap pans to detect squash vine borer adults. This can be any container (e.g. pan, pail, bowl) colored yellow and filled with water. Because squash vine borer adults are attracted to yellow, they will fly to the container and be trapped when they fall into the water. Place traps by late June, checking your traps at least once a day. When you notice squash vine borer adults in your traps you know they are active and it is time to take further action. Cultural Plant vine crops that are usually not attacked by squash vine borers, such as butternut squash, cucumbers, melons, and watermelons. A second planting of summer squash made in early July will mature after adult borers have finished laying eggs. Promptly pull and destroy any plants killed by squash vine borers. Physical You can physically exclude adult borers by placing floating row covers over your vine crops when they start to vine (or for non-vining varieties, starting late June or early July) or when you first detect squash vine borer adults. Keep the barriers in place for about two weeks after the first adult borer has been seen. Be sure the row covers are securely anchored to prevent adults from moving underneath it. Don't use row covers if cucurbits were planted in the same area the previous year. This is because squash vine borers overwinter in the soil near their host plants. When the adults emerge the following summer, they may end being trapped under the row cover instead of being kept out. Practice rotation to minimize this issue by planting cucurbits in different areas of your garden (if possible) or alternate seasons when you grow cucurbits. Caution Generally do not use floating row covers anytime crops are flowering. This prevents bees from pollinating your vegetables which will have a negative impact on plants. An exception to this would be if you pollinate your crops by hand while the floating row cover is erected. If, despite your efforts, your crop is successfully attacked by borers, you can try to kill the borer inside the vine. Although the chance of saving the plant is not good, you do not have much to lose. As soon as wilting is noticed, use a sharp knife to cut a slit in the affected stem. Slice carefully up the vine until you locate the borer (or borers). Once you have killed any borers with the tip of the knife, mound moist soil over the cut area and keep this spot well watered. New roots may grow along the cut stem, allowing the plant to survive. Reference https://www.extension.umn.edu/garden/insects/find/squash-vine-borers/ Web Worms Web Worms are the caterpillar form of a small white moth. The moths fly around during the summer laying their eggs on the underside of tree leaves. The moths seem to prefer alder, willow, cottonwood, apple, pear, peach, pecan, walnut, elm, and maples, but will eat a very large variety of trees and shrubs. Target plants include: Nearly every tree except conifers; favorites are mulberry, elm, sweet gum, willow, oak, linden, apple and other fruit trees. As the eggs hatch, the caterpillars start to spin a web around the leaves they're on. They feed for about six weeks and their webs can reach more than 3 feet across. This is when they look their worst. Other signs of fall webworms: Caterpillars gathering at branch tips; webbing surrounding branch tips; also watch for webs on branch tips of garden plants spinning silken webs. The gray-haired, black-spotted caterpillars may be yellow-green with a black head or tan with a red head. Worms feast inside webbing, increasing nest size as they grow. Feeding doesn’t typically cause long-term harm to the tree, but the nest is unsightly and may reach up to 3 feet across by late summer. Getting rid of these pests can be as simple as cutting the affected areas of the trees, shrubs or bushes away and disposing of them by: burning them in a fire it or burning barrel, or placing the cut branches in a trash bag and putting them in the dumpster. Reference http://www.bhg.com/gardening/pests/animal/how-to-control-garden-pests/ https://www.bayeradvanced.com/articles/top-5-summer-garden-pests Let us know if you have any questions about the material provided.
  • Patrick Rainbolt
    Jul 12, 2017

    Summer Growing , What can we still plant this year? SLIDE: Planting Zones in Ohio: Zone 5A The USDA hardiness zone 5A is present in only a few small areas of Ohio. The winter temperatures can drop as low as 15 to 20 degrees below zero Fahrenheit. The plants grown in zone 5A must be winter hardy. Your winter temperatures may not be as cold, or you may provide protection for the plants during the winter, which offers you a larger selection of plants to grow in your area. Zone 5B Most of northern Ohio has annual minimum temperatures of -10 to -15 degrees F and is classified as USDA hardiness zone 5B. The average last frost of the season ranges from March 30 to April 30. The first frost of the season generally comes in October. Plants needing a long growing season, such as watermelon, tomatoes and winter squash, should be started indoors six to eight weeks before the last expected frost date. Zone 6A USDA hardiness zone 6A covers much of the southern part of Ohio. The winter temperatures can drop to -10 degrees below zero F. Plants sold in nurseries and greenhouses are generally marked with growing requirements and the hardiness zone. A plant marked as hardy from zones 6 through 9 can withstand the lower temperatures of southern Ohio winters but may not do well in the northern part of the state. Zone 6B Along the Ohio river, which borders southern Ohio, there is a small section which is classified as USDA hardiness zone 6B. The winter temperatures may fall to -5 below zero F during the coldest part of the year. Because of the slightly warmer temperatures, the growing season may be longer in hardiness zone 6B. Fruits and vegetables have a longer time to ripen. As with any planting zone in Ohio, you must determine the micro-climate of your garden area before planting. Micro-climates The hardiness zones are a guideline for gardeners to use when planning a garden. However, the elements and other outside factors may create a bubble around your growing area. These bubbles are called microclimates. High winds or excessive rainfall may lower the annual average temperature for your growing area. This means that you may live in hardiness zone 6a but have temperatures more in line with zone 5b. Large cities often have higher temperatures than outlying suburbs and therefore the microclimate may be different than what is on the map. To determine your planting zone, track the annual low temperatures. Match the temperature records with the USDA hardiness zone map for planting a successful garden. Reference By Julie Richards https://www.hunker.com/12003419/planting-zones-in-ohio SLIDE: Planting Schedule: To help create a planting schedule for Zone 5 and 6 AVERAGE LAST FROST DATE is 30 Mar / 30 Apr AVERAGE FIRST FROST DATE is 30 Sep / 30 Oct SLIDE: Popular Summer Vegetables to Grow: Autumn and Winter Squash This is the thick-skinned cousin of summer squash. Acorn, butternut, delicata and pumpkins are all autumn/winter squashes. Vining varieties need plenty of space, at least 5 to 10 square feet per hill. Bush varieties can be planted in smaller gardens and only require 3 to 5 feet of room. These squash like full sun and well-drained soil. Allow them to ripen on the vine before harvesting at the end of the growing season before the first frost. Bush Beans Beans are super easy to grow from seed. Direct sow them in the garden after the soil temperature has warmed to 60 degrees F. Sow seeds every 3 weeks for a continuous harvest. Stop sowing about 8 weeks before the first fall frost date. Bush beans do not require staking. Beans are shallow rooted so be careful when working the soil around the plants. Corn Corn requires a lot of space to grow and the pollination must be just right. There are few vegetables that are as tasty fresh from the garden so it’s worth the effort. Corn relies on wind to carry pollen from the tassels to the silks on immature ears. To increase the chances of pollination it is best to plant corn in a square of short rows. Space plants about 1 foot apart. Feed at planting with a general organic fertilizer and again when tassels begin to form. Water consistently and regularly. Corn is shallow rooted so water diligently, especially during dry weather. Cucumbers Cucumbers need full sun, at least an inch of water per week, rich soil and pollinating insects to produce. Pick fruits regularly so that the vines will continue to produce. Bush varieties are suitable for containers, but if you have the space try vining types because they will produce more fruit. Just be sure to support vining cucumbers with a trellis. Eggplant Eggplant require lots of sunshine and warm, well-drained soil. Plants should be set out about 3 weeks after the last spring frost. Gardeners in warm climates with long growing seasons can direct sow seeds in the garden at this time. In cool regions seeds should be started indoors 8 – 10 weeks early and planted in containers where the soil temperature is warmer than the ground soil. In spite of their love of heat, once in the garden, eggplants like cool, moist roots. Mulch the ground with straw and keep it moist but not soggy. Okra Okra loves hot weather, rich soil and full sun. It should be direct sown in the garden several weeks after the last spring frost. In spite of this plant being considered a Southern vegetable, it can be grown in cooler climates. Seeds should be started indoors and moved out into the garden after the summer equinox in late June. Treat them like your mother’s best china when you plant seedlings because the roots are very delicate. Pick pods when they become 3 to 4 inches long. If they are allowed to over mature, the plants will stop producing. The over-ripe, tough pods are great for adding interest to cut flower arrangements. Peppers Wait a week or two after the last frost date to plant peppers. Give them full sun, well-drained soil and consistent moisture. Feed with an organic fertilizer after the plants begin to flower and set fruit. Sweet peppers and bell peppers planted in hot climates may not begin to produce until weather cools in late summer. Summer Squash and Zucchini Squash does not transplant well so it is best to direct sow it in the garden after the last frost date or select plants in biodegradable peat pots that can be planted along with the squash. Summer squash prefers nutrient rich, well-drained soil. Prepare your beds before planting with a generous amount of compost or well-rotted manure and an application of an all-purpose fertilizer such as 13-13-13. Gather squash when they are young and tender. Old, large fruits with tough skins should be removed from the vine and thrown away. This will encourage more flowers and fruit. Tomatoes Tomatoes grown from seed should be started indoors 5 – 6 weeks before the last spring frost. Set the plants out when the soil has warmed and night temperatures stay above 50 degrees F. Tomatoes need 6 to 8 hours of full sun. Get your stakes or trellises in place when you plant. Plant tomatoes deep; bury at least two-thirds of the plant’s stem. This will give the plant strong roots and better fruiting. If the plants start looking worse for wear toward the end of summer, cut back and fertilize for a new flush of growth. Reference http://pallensmith.com/2015/04/20/what-to-plant-in-your-summer-vegetable-garden/ SLIDE: Zone 6 Planting Schedule: Image Reference http://www.ufseeds.com/Zone-6-Planting-Calendar.html Let us know if you have any questions about the material provided.

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